SECTION 1.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Reference Source:- Kirk Othmer Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology 3rd Edition 1978 (Except where otherwise stated).

  • Boiling Point:        58.8°C
  • Freezing Point:    -7.25°C
  • Molecular weight: 159.8

Density of Liquid Bromine (g/ml)

15°C

3.1396

20°C

3.1226

25°C

3.1055

  • Viscosity, 20°C, Centistokes: 0.31 (1)
  • Vapour Density (air = 1) at Boiling Point: 5.5 (2)
  • Vol Coeff of Expansion (20 - 30°C) 0.0011 per °C
  • Vapour Pressure, 175 mmHg (20°C)
  • Latent Heat of Vaporisation (Boiling Point) 187 kJ/kg  (44.8 cal/g)
  • Specific Heat of Liquid (25°C): 0.473 Kj/kg/°C (2) (0.113 cal/g/°C; 18.09 cal/mole/°C)
  • Solubility in water at 20°C: 3.41g/100g
  • Solubility of water in bromine at 20°C: 34 mg/100g
  • Entropy, liquid, cal/mole °K, 25°C: 36.4 (1)
  • Dielectric Constant, 10^5 freq., 25°C: 3.33 (1)
  • Surface tension, dynes/cm, 58.6°C: 36 (1)
  • Flash point: none
  • Fire point: none
  • Refractive index, 15°C/D: 1.661 (1)
  • Compressibility, saturated vapours, PV/RT, 25°C: 0.991 (1)

Two physical properties of bromine can be exploited to reduce evolution of fumes from a spillage, namely its density and its limited solubility in water. Laboratory tests carried out by ICI have indicated that evolution of fumes from liquid bromine caught in a water filled bund or contained and covered by a layer of water from a drenching system is suppressed by 99%.

Additional References

  1. Bromine Handling Manual, Albemarle 1995
  2. Occupational Health Guidelines for Bromine. US Dept of Labour 1978.
  3. Hildebrand et al.; Journal American Chemical Society 80, 4129 (1958).
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